Subscribe For Free Updates!

We'll not spam mate! We promise.

Thursday, 21 May 2015

What is the difference between HUB,SWITCH and ROUTER?


hub is typically the least expensive, least intelligent, and least complicated of the three. Its job is very simple – anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others.
That’s it.
If a message1 comes in for computer “A”, that message is sent out all the other ports, regardless of which one computer “A” is on:
Message coming into a hub
And when computer “A” responds, its response also goes out to every other port on the hub:
Response being sent through a hub
Every computer connected to the hub “sees” everything that every other computer on the hub sees. The computers themselves decide if they are the targeted recipient of the message and when a message should be paid attention to or not.
The hub itself is blissfully ignorant of the data being transmitted. For years, simple hubs have been quick and easy ways to connect computers in small networks.


switch does essentially what a hub does, but more efficiently. By paying attention to the traffic that comes across it, it can “learn” where particular addresses are.
Initially, a switch knows nothing and simply sends on incoming messages to all ports:
The initial contact through a switch
Even accepting that first message, however, the switch has learned something – it knows on which connection the sender of the message is located. Thus, when machine “A” responds to the message, the switches only need to send that message out to the one connection:
Response being processed through a switch
In addition to sending the response through to the originator, the switch has now learned something else – it now knows on which connection machine “A” is located.
That means that subsequent messages destined for machine “A” need only be sent to that one port:
Switch sending an incoming message to the machine who's location it is aware of.
Switches learn the location of the devices that they are connected to almost instantaneously. The net result is that most network traffic only goes where it needs to rather than to every port. On busy networks, this can make the network significantly faster.


router is the smartest and most complicated of the bunch. Routers come in all shapes and sizes – from the small, four-port broadband routers that are very popular right now to the large industrial strength devices that drive the internet itself.
A simple way to think of a router is as a computer that can be programmed to understand, possibly manipulate, and route the data that it’s being asked to handle. Many routers today are, in fact, little computers dedicated to the task of routing network traffic.
As far as simple traffic routing is concerned, a router operates exactly as a switch, learning the location of the computers on its connections and routing traffic only to those computers.
Consumer grade routers perform at minimum two additional and important
tasks: DHCP and NAT.
DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – is the way dynamic IP addresses are assigned. A device asks for an IP address to be assigned to it from “upstream” and a DHCP server responds with an IP address assignment. A router connected to your ISP-provided internet connection will typically ask your ISP’s server for an IP address; this will be your IP address on the internet. Your local computers, on the other hand, will ask the router for an IP address and these addresses are local to your network.
Router reciving an IP address from ISP, and itself handing out IP addresses to local computers
NAT – Network Address Translation – is the way that the router translates the IP addresses of packets that cross the internet/local network boundary. When computer “A” sends a packet out, the IP address that it’s “from” is that of computer “A” – in the example above. When the router passes that on to the internet, it replaces the local IP address with the internet IP address assigned by the ISP. It also keeps track, so that if a response comes back from somewhere on the internet, the router knows to do the translation in reverse – replace the internet IP address with the local IP address for machine “A” and then send that response packet on to machine “A”.
A side effect of NAT is that machines on the internet cannot initiate communications to local machines – they can only respond to communications initiated by those local machines.
The net effect is that the router then also acts as a firewall:
Router acting as a firewall
What that means is that malware that might spread by trying to independently connect to your computer over the network cannot.
All routers include some kind of user interface for configuring how the router will treat traffic. The really large routers include the equivalent of a full-blown programming language to describe how they should operate as well as the ability to communicate with other routers to describe or determine the best way to get network traffic from point A to point B.

Friday, 10 October 2014

Difference between Torrents vs. Usenet

Torrents vs. Usenet
A passion for online sharing and downloading may be considered as an addiction or a bad habit, but to many it is a way of life and to these users there exists not a worse nightmare than receiving a warning letter from copyrights charging you of pirating copyrighted property. For this reason and many others, there has been a noted user traffic shift from Torrents to Usenet. To help you understand and cleverly execute your decision, we have a look at the differences between Torrents and Usenet.
Torrents have much more to offer as compared to Usenet. This is because when using Usenet you rely mainly in existing files, but with Torrents the circulation of data among different users makes it more reliable. Also the sharing option on Torrents is one of the most contributing factors to variety and thus lets one freely share and download.
The issue of cost is vital, especially when it comes to any aspect of consumption. In most parts of the world you can access Torrents at zero prices as opposed to Usenet. To get a better experience with Torrents, you are advised to spend between $8 and $10 to secure a recommended Torrent friendly VPN. Usenet, on the other hand, runs on a physical server that is being managed by a service provider. This demands an extra charge as opposed to Torrents that relies on files that have been downloaded by different internet users and thus requires no server.
When downloading anything from any source, you look to speed as your main consideration. And for this case, you will find Usenet faster than Torrents. This is so because when using Usenet, you download directly from the server that has been optimized to suit your requirement rather than searching the whole internet for one item in different categories. However, the type of subscription that you do choose is directly proportional to the speed that you will use. The unlimited download plan has some attached speed discrepancies that limit the speed of this service. When you download to a certain capacity, the speed reduces to an annoying experience unlike using a fixed broadband plan that allows you maximum speed.
As a service user, you are bound to look for effective and easy to use software. There are a number of features that you do not want to miss out on, especially when working with downloading and sharing. Though the Usenet provider will/may gift you some of the essential software, you are also required to be on the lookout for the other part that can help you complete your equation of better and reliable performance for instance the Panic’s Unison for OSX client. As for Torrents, you just have to download free software online to have an operating account, though you may have to look out for a good VPN for optimum performance

Read more: Difference between Torrents vs. Usenet | Difference Between | Difference between Torrents vs. Usenet

What is the difference between Chromium and Chrome?

Chromium is an open-sourced project that includes 3 parts: the browser, Blink and Chrome OS. Chromium is great for developers and those who like experimenting with Chrome-related features. Chromium is updated daily, which is a big deal. There are some things to keep in mind, though.
Google-Chrome-Chromium-iconBecause of its nature and licensing differences, Chromium doesn’t operate the same as its consumer-ready counter parts. Chromium doesn’t have Adobe Flash and PDF embedded, for example. This functionality has to be added in the form of plugins.
In addition Chromium is not updated automatically. You will have to update it manually whenever you wish to get the latest version of Chromium. The lack of said features may make Chromium sound inferior, but this open-source project is not really meant to be consumer-friendly. Many users claim it’s more private, though, which you may love.

Sunday, 21 September 2014

Difference Between Capacitive & Resistive Touch screens

Resistive Touch screens

The resistive touchscreen is the most common type of touchscreen. Except for modern smartphones, tablets and trackpads, most touchscreens we come in contact with are actually resistive touchscreens. As you’ve probably guessed, the resistive touchscreen relies on resistance. In that respect, it’s pretty intuitive to understand – the pressure you apply causes the screen to respond.
A resistive touchscreen is made out of two thin layers separated by a thin gap. These are not the only layers in the resistive touchscreen, but we’ll focus on them for simplicity. These two layers both have a coating on one side, with the coated sides facing each other inside the gap, just like two pieces of bread in a sandwich. When these two layers of coating touch each other, a voltage is passed, which is in turn processed as a touch in that location.
resistive touchscreen   What Are The Differences Between Capacitive & Resistive Touchscreens?

So when your finger, stylus, or any other instrument touches a resistive screen, it creates a slight pressure on the top layer, which is then transferred to the adjacent layer, thus starting the cascade of signals. Because of this, you can use anything you want on a resistive touchscreen to make the touch interface work; a gloved finger, a wooden rod, a fingernail – anything that creates enough pressure on the point of impact will activate the mechanism and the touch will be registered.
For this very same reason, resistive touchscreen require slight pressure in order to register the touch, and are not always as quick to respond as capacitive touchscreens such as the iPhone’s. In addition, the resistive touchscreen’s multiple layers cause the display to be less sharp, with lower contrast than we might see on capacitive screens. While most resistive screens don’t allow for multi-touch gestures such as pinch to zoom, they can register a touch by one finger when another finger is already touching a different location on the screen.
nokia n800   What Are The Differences Between Capacitive & Resistive Touchscreens?

Resistive screens have been improving greatly over the years, and today many lower-end smartphones boast a resistive screen which is no less accurate than high-end devices. Some recent devices using resistive touchscreens are the Nokia N800, the Nokia N97, the HTC Tattoo and the Samsung Jet. Another well-known device using resistive technology is the Nintendo DS, which was the first popular game console to make use of it.

Capacitive Touch screens

Surprisingly, it was actually the capacitive touchscreen that was invented first; the first one was built almost 10 years before the first resistive touchscreen. Nevertheless, today’s capacitive touchscreens are highly accurate and respond instantly when lightly touched by a human finger. So how does it work?
As opposed to the resistive touchscreen, which relies on the mechanical pressure made by the finger or stylus, the capacitive touchscreen makes use of the electrical properties of the human body. A capacitive screen is usually made of one insulating layer, such as glass, which is coated by a transparent conductive material on the inside. Since the human body is conductive, which means electricity can pass through it, the capacitive screen can use this conductivity as input. When you touch a capacitive touchscreen with your finger, you cause a change in the screen’s electrical field.
capacitive touchscreens   What Are The Differences Between Capacitive & Resistive Touchscreens?

This change is registered, and the location of the touch is determined by a processor. This can be done by several different technologies , but they all rely on the electrical change caused by a light touch of a finger. This is the reason you cannot use a capacitive screen while wearing gloves – the gloves are not conductive, and the touch does not cause any change in the electrostatic field. Same goes for non-capacitive styluses.
galaxy s 3   What Are The Differences Between Capacitive & Resistive Touchscreens?

Since capacitive screens are made of one main layer, which is constantly getting thinner as technology advances, these screens are not only more sensitive and accurate, the display itself can be much sharper, as seen on devices such as the iPhone 4S. And of course, capacitive touchscreens can also make use of multi-touch gestures, but only by using several fingers at the same time. If one finger is touching one part of the screen, it won’t be able to sense another touch accurately.
Which type of screen do you prefer? Do you like being able to use your touchscreen with any type of stylus or instrument, or do you value speed and accuracy over anything else? Share your opinions in the comments.

Thursday, 18 September 2014

Difference between Pen Drive and Flash Drive

Flash Drive:

Basically pendrive/flash drive/thumb drive/usb Flast drive are products build from a memory technology called as Flash memory. Manufacturers use these different terms for their flash memory based products.

flash drive is a storage device that uses flash memory rather than conventional spinning platters to store data. 

Pen Drive:

So a pendrive is nothing but a Flash memory with a USB interface. The memory cards used in your mobiles are also based on flash memory. only their their interface is different.

Sometimes referred to as a jumpdrive, the pen drive is a portable USB flash memory device that can be used to quickly transfer audio, video, and data files from the hard drive of one computer to another. With a construction that is small enough to fit into a pocket, the pen drive derives its name from the fact that many of these USB drive devices resemble a small pen or pencil in size and shape.

Difference Between SDD and HDD

 Difference Between SSD and HDD


Solid-State Drive or Solid-State Disk(SSD) to store data persistently via integrated circuit assemblies. An SSD uses semiconductors as a primary storage medium, which is in direct contrast with hard drives that use magnetic media.

 Features of SSD
Features of TFT LCD:
Features of TFT LCD:
  • Non-mechanical design of NAND flash mounted on circuit boards, and are shock resistant up to 1500g/0.5ms
  • 100 times greater performance, almost instantaneous data access, quicker boot ups, faster file transfers, and an overall snappier computing experience than hard drives
  • use significantly less power at peak load than hard drives, less than 2W vs. 6W for an HDD
  • Flash-based SSDs weigh considerably less than hard drives – only 77g vs. 752.5g for HDDs
  • It is not affected by magnetism. So information could not be erased using strong magnets.
  • With no moving parts, SSDs run at near silent operation and never disturb your computing experience
Dark Side

  • NAND flash memory is still expensive.

Hard Disk Drive(HDD) consists of discs that are encased in a magnetic coating. This coating stores data magnetically, and the discs spin at rapid speeds to store and obtain information.

 Features of HDD
  • Much cheaper than SDD
 Dark Side
  • Less Durable.Hard Drives consist of various moving parts making them susceptible to shock and damage.
  • A typical HDD takes about 5,000 to 10,000 micro-seconds to access data where 100 times slower than SSD
  •  More Power required to spin the platters
  • HDD generates more heat beacuse of moving parts which in turns slowly damage electronics over time.
  • information could be erased from an HDD using strong magnets.

 Best SDD available now in the market   SanDisk Extreme PRO , Samsung SSD 850 Pro,Seagate 600 SSD

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Difference between TFT Screen and Gorilla Glass and IPS LCD


Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal-Display (TFT LCD) is a type of LCD using TFT technology mainly to improve Addressability and Contrast.

Features of TFT LCD:

1.It is a type of active matrix LCD display added as a counterpoint to passive matrix LCD.

2.Mainly used these days in Television sets, Mobile phones, handheld video game devices, projectors and various other budget devices.

3.Active Matrix LCDS are lot cheaper to produce so they are commonly used in low and average budget phones and other display devices.

Dark side :
Large TFT LCD requires more power so they dissipate more battery

3.2" TFT LCD Module Display


In-Place Switching LCD is superior to TFT LCD as they provide wider viewer angles and consumption of less power resulting in low battery usage.

Areas of IPS LCD:

IPS-LCDs are costlier than normal TFT LCD and hence are found only on higher end smartphones. A higher resolution (640 x 960 pixels) version of IPS LCD is used in Apple iPhone 4 and is called Retina Display because of its brilliant picture quality.

Gorilla Glass
It is a special alkali-aluminosilicate glass shield with exceptional damage resistance that helps protect mobile displays from scratches, drops, and bumps of everyday use. Many companies like Motorola, Samsung and Nokia are now using Gorilla Glass to make their mobile displays more durable and reliable. It is always better to go for a smartphone with Gorilla Glass for that added protection and peace of mind.

Passive and Active Matrix 

LCDs use a simple grid to supply the charge to a particular pixel on the display. Creating the grid is quite a process! It starts with two glass layers called substrates
LCDs depend on thin film transistors (TFT). Basically, TFTs are tiny switching transistors and capacitors.